Obstetrics and gynecology, though often listed together, are two separate specialties of medicine. Gynecology, literally meaning “the science of women”, is the branch of medicine dealing with the female reproductive system, including the uterus, vagina and ovaries. Obstetrics, however, is the branch of medicine that deals with pregnancy and childbirth. Because of their similarities, obstetrics and gynecology is often studied and taught together, and nearly every licensed gynecologist can also qualify as an obstetrician (though the reverse is not always true). Thanks to many advances in modern medicine and technology, procedures, equipment, and diagnoses in both obstetrics and gynecology, treatments in both fields are remarkably more effective and efficient than ever before.